Saturday, 21 September 2019

Enforce noninstantiability with a private constructor in Utility classes

Sometimes, we want to write a class that is just a grouping of static methods and static fields. They can be used to group related methods on primitive values or arrays, in the manner of java.lang.Math or java.util.Arrays. These classes are known as Utility classes.

Utility classes can also be used to group static methods, including factories, for objects that implement some interface, in the manner of java.util.Collections.

Such utility classes were not designed to be instantiated: an instance would be nonsensical. In the absence of explicit constructors, however, the compiler provides a public, parameterless default constructor. To a user, this constructor is indistinguishable from any other. It is not uncommon to see unintentionally instantiable classes in published APIs.

Attempting to enforce noninstantiability by making a class abstract does not work. The class can be subclassed and the subclass instantiated. Furthermore, it misleads the user into thinking the class was designed for inheritance.

There is, however, a simple idiom to ensure noninstantiability. A default constructor is generated only if a class contains no explicit constructors, so a class can be made noninstantiable by including a private constructor:

// Noninstantiable utility class
public class UtilityClass {
     // Suppress default constructor for noninstantiability
     private UtilityClass() {
          throw new AssertionError();
     // Remainder omitted

Because the explicit constructor is private, it is inaccessible outside the class. The AssertionError isn’t strictly required, but it provides insurance in case the constructor is accidentally invoked from within the class. It guarantees the class will never be instantiated under any circumstances. This idiom is mildly counterintuitive because the constructor is provided expressly so that it cannot be invoked. It is therefore wise to include a comment, as shown earlier.

As a side effect, this idiom also prevents the class from being subclassed. All constructors must invoke a superclass constructor, explicitly or implicitly, and a subclass would have no accessible superclass constructor to invoke.

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